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World History Timeline of Events Leading up to Bitcoin - In the Making

A (live/editable) timeline of historical events directly or indirectly related to the creation of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
*still workin' on this so check back later and more will be added, if you have any suggested dates/events feel free to lemme know...
This timeline includes dates pertaining to:
Ancient Bartering – first recorded in Egypt (resources, services...) – doesn’t scale
Tally sticks were used, making notches in bones or wood, as a form of money of account
9000-6000 BC Livestock considered the first form of currency
c3200 BC Clay tablets used in Uruk (Iraq) for accounting (believed to be the earliest form of writing)
3000 BC Grain is used as a currency, measured out in Shekels
3000 BC Banking developed in Mesopotamia
3000 BC? Punches used to stamp symbols on coins were a precursor to the printing press and modern coins
? BC Since ancient Persia and all the way up until the invention and expansion of the telegraph Homing Pigeons were used to carry messages
2000 BC Merchants in Assyria, India and Sumeria lent grain to farmers and traders as a precursor to banks
1700 BC In Babylon at the time of Hammurabi, in the 18th century BC, there are records of loans made by the priests of the temple.
1200 BC Shell money first used in China
1000-600 BC Crude metal coins first appear in China
640 BC Precious metal coins – Gold & Silver first used in ancient Lydia and coastal Greek cities featuring face to face heads of a bull and a lion – first official minted currency made from electrum, a mixture of gold and silver
600-500 BC Atbash Cipher
A substitution Cipher used by ancient Hebrew scholars mapping the alphabet in reverse, for example, in English an A would be a Z, B a Y etc.
400 BC Skytale used by Sparta
474 BC Hundreds of gold coins from this era were discovered in Rome in 2018
350 BC Greek hydraulic semaphore system, an optical communication system developed by Aeneas Tacticus.
c200 BC Polybius Square
??? Wealthy stored coins in temples, where priests also lent them out
??? Rome was the first to create banking institutions apart from temples
118 BC First banknote in the form of 1 foot sq pieces of white deerskin
100-1 AD Caesar Cipher
193 Aureus, a gold coin of ancient Rome, minted by Septimius Severus
324 Solidus, pure gold coin, minted under Constantine’s rule, lasted until the late 8th century
600s Paper currency first developed in Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty, 960–1279
c757–796 Silver pennies based on the Roman denarius became the staple coin of Mercia in Great Britain around the time of King Offa
806 First paper banknotes used in China but isn’t widely accepted in China until 960
1024 The first series of standard government notes were issued in 1024 with denominations like 1 guàn (貫, or 700 wén), 1 mín (緡, or 1000 wén), up to 10 guàn. In 1039 only banknotes of 5 guàn and 10 guàn were issued, and in 1068 a denomination of 1 guàn was introduced which became forty percent of all circulating Jiaozi banknotes.
1040 The first movable type printer was invented in China and made of porcelain
? Some of the earliest forms of long distance communication were drums used by Native Africans and smoke signals used by Native Americans and Chinese
1088 Movable type in Song Dynasty China
1120 By the 1120s the central government officially stepped in and produced their own state-issued paper money (using woodblock printing)
1150 The Knights Templar issued bank notes to pilgrims. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value.
1200s-1300s During the 13th century bankers from north Italy, collectively known as Lombards, gradually replace the Jews in their traditional role as money-lenders to the rich and powerful. – Florence, Venice and Genoa - The Bardi and Peruzzi Families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe
1200 By the time Marco Polo visited China they’d move from coins to paper money, who introduced the concept to Europe. An inscription warned, "All counterfeiters will be decapitated." Before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle. Several coins could be strung together on a rope. Merchants in China, if they became rich enough, found that their strings of coins were too heavy to carry around easily. To solve this problem, coins were often left with a trustworthy person, and the merchant was given a slip of paper recording how much money they had with that person. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan Dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."
1252 Florin minted in Florence, becomes the hard currency of its day helping Florence thrive economically
1340 Double-entry bookkeeping - The clerk keeping the accounts for the Genoese firm of Massari painstakingly fills in the ledger for the year 1340.
1397 Medici Bank established
1450 Johannes Gutenberg builds the printing press – printed words no longer just for the rich
1455 Paper money disappears from China
1466 Polyalphabetic Cipher
1466 Rotating cipher disks – Vatican – greatest crypto invention in 1000 yrs – the first system to challenge frequency analysis
1466 First known mechanical cipher machine
1472 The oldest bank still in existence founded, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy
1494 Double-entry bookkeeping system codified by Luca Pacioli
1535 Wampum, a form of currency used by Native Americans, a string of beads made from clamshells, is first document.
1553 Vigenere Cipher
1557 Phillip II of Spain managed to burden his kingdom with so much debt (as the result of several pointless wars) that he caused the world's first national bankruptcy — as well as the world's second, third and fourth, in rapid succession.
1577 Newspaper in Korea
1586 The Babington Plot
1590 Cabinet Noir was established in France. Its mission was to open, read and reseal letters, and great expertise was developed in the restoration of broken seals. In the knowledge that mail was being opened, correspondents began to develop systems to encrypt and decrypt their letters. The breaking of these codes gave birth to modern systematic scientific code breaking.
1600s Promissory banknotes began in London
1600s By the early 17th century banking begins also to exist in its modern sense - as a commercial service for customers rather than kings. – Late 17th century we see cheques slowly gains acceptance
The total of the money left on deposit by a bank's customers is a large sum, only a fraction of which is usually required for withdrawals. A proportion of the rest can be lent out at interest, bringing profit to the bank. When the customers later come to realize this hidden value of their unused funds, the bank's profit becomes the difference between the rates of interest paid to depositors and demanded from debtors.
The transformation from moneylenders into private banks is a gradual one during the 17th and 18th centuries. In England it is achieved by various families of goldsmiths who early in the period accept money on deposit purely for safe-keeping. Then they begin to lend some of it out. Finally, by the 18th century, they make banking their business in place of their original craft as goldsmiths.
1605 Newspaper in Straussburg
c1627 Great Cipher
1637 Wampum is declared as legal tender in the U.S. (where we got the slang word “clams” for money)
1656 Johan Palmstruch establishes the Stockholm Banco
1661 Paper Currency reappears in Europe, soon became common - The goldsmith-bankers of London began to give out the receipts as payable to the bearer of the document rather than the original depositor
1661 Palmstruch issues credit notes which can be exchanged, on presentation to his bank, for a stated number of silver coins
1666 Stockholms Banco, the predecessor to the Central Bank of Sweden issues the first paper money in Europe. Soon went bankrupt for printing too much money.
1667 He issues more notes than his bank can afford to redeem with silver and winds up in disgrace, facing a death penalty (commuted to imprisonment) for fraud.
1668 Bank of Sweden – today the 2nd oldest surviving bank
1694 First Central Bank established in the UK was the first bank to initiate the permanent issue of banknotes
Served as model for most modern central banks.
The modern banknote rests on the assumption that money is determined by a social and legal consensus. A gold coin's value is simply a reflection of the supply and demand mechanism of a society exchanging goods in a free market, as opposed to stemming from any intrinsic property of the metal. By the late 17th century, this new conceptual outlook helped to stimulate the issue of banknotes.
1700s Throughout the commercially energetic 18th century there are frequent further experiments with bank notes - deriving from a recognized need to expand the currency supply beyond the availability of precious metals.
1710 Physiocracy
1712 First commercial steam engine
1717 Master of the Royal Mint Sir Isaac Newton established a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation (bimetalism) and putting Britain on a gold standard.
1735 Classical Economics – markets regulate themselves when free of intervention
1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Founder of the Rothschild Banking Empire, is Born in Frankfurt, Germany
Mayer Amschel Rothschild extended his banking empire across Europe by carefully placing his five sons in key positions. They set up banks in Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris. By the mid 1800’s they dominated the banking industry, lending to governments around the world and people such as the Vanderbilts, Carnegies, and Cecil Rhodes.
1745 There was a gradual move toward the issuance of fixed denomination notes in England standardized printed notes ranging from £20 to £1,000 were being printed.
1748 First recorded use of the word buck for a dollar, stemming from the Colonial period in America when buck skins were commonly traded
1757 Colonial Scrip Issued in US
1760s Mayer Amschel Rothschild establishes his banking business
1769 First steam powered car
1775-1938 US Diplomatic Codes & Ciphers by Ralph E Weber used – problems were security and distribution
1776 American Independence
1776 Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand theory helped bankers and money-lenders limit government interference in the banking sector
1781 The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted created the US Nation's first de facto central bank. When shares in the bank were sold to the public, the Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering. It lasted less than ten years.
1783 First steamboat
1791 Congress Creates the First US Bank – A Private Company, Partly Owned by Foreigners – to Handle the Financial Needs of the New Central Government. First Bank of the United States, a National bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, it was not renewed in 1811.
Previously, the 13 states had their own banks, currencies and financial institutions, which had an average lifespan of about 5 years.
1792 First optical telegraph invented where towers with telescopes were dispersed across France 12-25 km apart, relaying signals according to positions of arms extended from the top of the towers.
1795 Thomas Jefferson invents the Jefferson Disk Cipher or Wheel Cipher
1797 to 1821 Restriction Period by England of trading banknotes for silver during Napoleonic Wars
1797 Currency Crisis
Although the Bank was originally a private institution, by the end of the 18th century it was increasingly being regarded as a public authority with civic responsibility toward the upkeep of a healthy financial system.
1799 First paper machine
1800 Banque de France – France’s central bank opens to try to improve financing of the war
1800 Invention of the battery
1801 Rotchschild Dynasty begins in Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire – established international banking family through his 5 sons who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples
1804 Steam locomotive
1807 Internal combustion engine and automobile
1807 Robert Fulton expands water transportation and trade with the workable steamboat.
1809 Telegraphy
1811 First powered printing press, also first to use a cylinder
1816 The Privately Owned Second Bank of the US was Chartered – It Served as the Main Depository for Government Revenue, Making it a Highly Profitable Bank – charter not renewed in 1836
1816 The first working telegraph was built using static electricity
1816 Gold becomes the official standard of value in England
1820 Industrial Revolution
c1820 Neoclassical Economics
1821 British gov introduces the gold standard - With governments issuing the bank notes, the inherent danger is no longer bankruptcy but inflation.
1822 Charles Babbage, considered the "father of the computer", begins building the first programmable mechanical computer.
1832 Andrew Jackson Campaigns Against the 2nd Bank of the US and Vetoes Bank Charter Renewal
Andrew Jackson was skeptical of the central banking system and believed it gave too few men too much power and caused inflation. He was also a proponent of gold and silver and an outspoken opponent of the 2nd National Bank. The Charter expired in 1836.
1833 President Jackson Issues Executive Order to Stop Depositing Government Funds Into Bank of US
By September 1833, government funds were being deposited into state chartered banks.
1833-1837 Manufactured “boom” created by central bankers – money supply Increases 84%, Spurred by the 2nd Bank of the US
The total money supply rose from $150 million to $267 million
1835 Jackson Escapes Assassination. Assassin misfired twice.
1837-1862 The “Free Banking Era” there was no formal central bank in the US, and banks issued their own notes again
1838 First Telegram sent using Morse Code across 3 km, in 1844 he sent a message across 71 km from Washington DC to Baltimore.
1843 Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm for computing
1844 Modern central bank of England established - meaning only the central bank of England could issue banknotes – prior to that commercial banks could issue their own and were the primary form of currency throughout England
the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt.
1848 Communist Manifesto
1850 The first undersea telegraphic communications cable connected France in England after latex produced from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree in 1845 was proposed as insulation for the underwater cables.
1852 Many countries in Europe build telegram networks, however post remained the primary means of communication to distant countries.
1855 In England fully printed notes that did not require the name of the payee and the cashier's signature first appeared
1855 The printing telegraph made it possible for a machine with 26 alphabetic keys to print the messages automatically and was soon adopted worldwide.
1856 Belgian engineer Charles Bourseul proposed telephony
1856 The Atlantic Telegraph company was formed in London to stretch a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, completed in 1866.
1860 The Pony Express was founded, able to deliver mail of wealthy individuals or government officials from coast to coast in 10 days.
1861 The East coast was connected to the West when Western Union completed the transcontinental telegraph line, putting an end to unprofitable The Pony Express.
1862-1863 First US banknotes - Lincoln Over Rules Debt-Based Money and Issues Greenbacks to Fund Civil War
Bankers would only lend the government money under certain conditions and at high interest rates, so Lincoln issued his own currency – “greenbacks” – through the US Treasury, and made them legal tender. His soldiers went on to win the war, followed by great economic expansion.
1863 to 1932 “National Banking Era” Commercial banks in the United States had legally issued banknotes before there was a national currency; however, these became subject to government authorization from 1863 to 1932
1864 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen founded the first rural credit union in Heddesdorf (now part of Neuwied) in Germany. By the time of Raiffeisen's death in 1888, credit unions had spread to Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, Austria, and other nations
1870 Long-distance telegraph lines connected Britain and India.
c1871 Marginalism - The doctrines of marginalism and the Marginal Revolution are often interpreted as a response to the rise of the worker's movement, Marxian economics and the earlier (Ricardian) socialist theories of the exploitation of labour.
1871 Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics – Austrian School
1872 Marx’s Das Capital
1872 Australia becomes the first nation to be connected to the rest of the world via submarine telegraph cables.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, first called the electric speech machine – revolutionized communication
1877 Thomas Edison – Phonograph
1878 Western Union, the leading telegraph provider of the U.S., begins to lose out to the telephone technology of the National Bell Telephone Company.
1881 President James Garfield, Staunch Proponent of “Honest Money” Backed by Gold and Silver, was Assassinated
Garfield opposed fiat currency (money that was not backed by any physical object). He had the second shortest Presidency in history.
1882 First description of the one-time pad
1886 First gas powered car
1888 Ballpoint pen
1892 Cinematograph
1895 System of wireless communication using radio waves
1896 First successful intercontinental telegram
1898 Polyethylene
1899 Nickel-cadmium battery
1907 Banking Panic of 1907
The New York Stock Exchange dropped dramatically as everyone tried to get their money out of the banks at the same time across the nation. This banking panic spurred debate for banking reform. JP Morgan and others gathered to create an image of concern and stability in the face of the panic, which eventually led to the formation of the Federal Reserve. The founders of the Federal Reserve pretended like the bankers were opposed to the idea of its formation in order to mislead the public into believing that the Federal Reserve would help to regulate bankers when in fact it really gave even more power to private bankers, but in a less transparent way.
1908 St Mary’s Bank – first credit union in US
1908 JP Morgan Associate and Rockefeller Relative Nelson Aldrich Heads New National Monetary Commission
Senate Republican leader, Nelson Aldrich, heads the new National Monetary Commission that was created to study the cause of the banking panic. Aldrich had close ties with J.P. Morgan and his daughter married John D. Rockefeller.
1910 Bankers Meet Secretly on Jekyll Island to Draft Federal Reserve Banking Legislation
Over the course of a week, some of the nation’s most powerful bankers met secretly off the coast of Georgia, drafting a proposal for a private Central Banking system.
1913 Federal Reserve Act Passed
Two days before Christmas, while many members of Congress were away on vacation, the Federal Reserve Act was passed, creating the Central banking system we have today, originally with gold backed Federal Reserve Notes. It was based on the Aldrich plan drafted on Jekyll Island and gave private bankers supreme authority over the economy. They are now able to create money out of nothing (and loan it out at interest), make decisions without government approval, and control the amount of money in circulation.
1913 Income tax established -16th Amendment Ratified
Taxes ensured that citizens would cover the payment of debt due to the Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, which was also created in 1913.The 16th Amendment stated: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”
1914 November, Federal Reserve Banks Open
JP Morgan and Co. Profits from Financing both sides of War and Purchasing Weapons
J.P. Morgan and Co. made a deal with the Bank of England to give them a monopoly on underwriting war bonds for the UK and France. They also invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France.
1914 WWI
1917 Teletype cipher
1917 The one-time pad
1917 Zimmerman Telegram intercepted and decoded by Room 40, the cryptanalysis department of the British Military during WWI.
1918 GB returns to gold standard post-war but it didn’t work out
1919 First rotor machine, an electro-mechanical stream ciphering and decrypting machine.
1919 Founding of The Cipher Bureau, Poland’s intelligence and cryptography agency.
1919-1929 The Black Chamber, a forerunner of the NSA, was the first U.S. cryptanalytic organization. Worked with the telegraph company Western Union to illegally acquire foreign communications of foreign embassies and representatives. It was shut down in 1929 as funding was removed after it was deemed unethical to intercept private domestic radio signals.
1920s Department stores, hotel chains and service staions begin offering customers charge cards
1921-1929 The “Roaring 20’s” – The Federal Reserve Floods the Economy with Cash and Credit
From 1921 to 1929 the Federal Reserve increased the money supply by $28 billion, almost a 62% increase over an eight-year period.[3] This artificially created another “boom”.
1927 Quartz clock
1928 First experimental Television broadcast in the US.
1929 Federal Reserve Contracts the Money Supply
In 1929, the Federal Reserve began to pull money out of circulation as loans were paid back. They created a “bust” which was inevitable after issuing so much credit in the years before. The Federal Reserve’s actions triggered the banking crisis, which led to the Great Depression.
1929 October 24, “Black Thursday”, Stock Market Crash
The most devastating stock market crash in history. Billions of dollars in value were consolidated into the private banker’s hands at the expense of everyone else.
1930s The Great Depression marked the end of the gold standard
1931 German Enigma machines attained and reconstructed.
1932 Turbo jet engine patented
1933 SEC founded - passed the Glass–Steagall Act, which separated investment banking and commercial banking. This was to avoid more risky investment banking activities from ever again causing commercial bank failures.
1933 FM Radio
1933 Germany begins Telex, a network of teleprinters sending and receiving text based messages. Post WWII Telex networks began to spread around the world.
1936 Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented Printed circuit board
1936 Beginning of the Keynesian Revolution
1937 Typex, British encryption machines which were upgraded versions of Enigma machines.
1906 Teletypewriters
1927 Founding of highly secret and unofficial Signal Intelligence Service, SIS, the U.S. Army’s codebreaking division.
1937 Made illegal for Americans to own gold
1938 Z1 built by Konrad Zuse is the first freely programmable computer in the world.
1939 WWII – decline of the gold standard which greatly restricted policy making
1939-45 Codetalkers - The Navajo code is the only spoken military code never to have been deciphered - "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima."—Howard Connor
1940 Modems
1942 Deciphering Japanese coded messages leads to a turning point victory for the U.S. in WWII.
1943 At Bletchley Park, Alan Turing and team build a specialized cipher-breaking machine called Heath Robinson.
1943 Colossus computer built in London to crack the German Lorenz cipher.
1944 Bretton Woods – convenient after the US had most of the gold
1945 Manhattan Project – Atom Bomb
1945 Transatlantic telephone cable
1945 Claude E. Shannon published "A mathematical theory of cryptography", commonly accepted as the starting point for development of modern cryptography.
C1946 Crypto Wars begin and last to this day
1946 Charg-it card created by John C Biggins
1948 Atomic clock
1948 Claude Shannon writes a paper that establishes the mathematical basis of information theory
1949 Info theorist Claude Shannon asks “What does an ideal cipher look like?” – one time pad – what if the keys are not truly random
1950 First credit card released by the Diners Club, able to be used in 20 restaurants in NYC
1951 NSA, National Security Agency founded and creates the KL-7, an off-line rotor encryption machine
1952 First thermonuclear weapon
1953 First videotape recorder
1953 Term “Hash” first used meaning to “chop” or “make a mess” out of something
1954 Atomic Energy Act (no mention of crypto)
1957 The NSA begins producing ROMOLUS encryption machines, soon to be used by NATO
1957 First PC – IBM
1957 First Satellite – Sputnik 1
1958 Western Union begins building a nationwide Telex network in the U.S.
1960s Machine readable codes were added to the bottom of cheques in MICR format, which speeded up the clearing and sorting process
1960s Financial organizations were beginning to require strong commercial encryption on the rapidly growing field of wired money transfer.
1961 Electronic clock
1963 June 4, Kennedy Issued an Executive Order (11110) that Authorized the US Treasury to Issue Silver Certificates, Threatening the Federal Reserve’s Monopoly on Money
This government issued currency would bypass the governments need to borrow from bankers at interest.
1963 Electronic calculator
1963 Nov. 22, Kennedy Assassinated
1963 Johnson Reverses Kennedy’s Banking Rule and Restores Power to the Federal Reserve
1964 8-Track
1964 LAN, Local Area Networks adapters
1965 Moore’s Law by CEO of Intel Gordon Moore observes that the number of components per integrated circuit doubles every year, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975 he revised it to every two years.
1967 First ATM installed at Barclay’s Bank in London
1968 Cassette Player introduced
1969 First connections of ARPANET, predecessor of the internet, are made. started – SF, SB, UCLA, Utah (now Darpa) – made to stay ahead of the Soviets – there were other networks being built around the world but it was very hard to connect them – CERN in Europe
1970s Stagflation – unemployment + inflation, which Keynesian theory could not explain
1970s Business/commercial applications for Crypto emerge – prior to this time it was militarily used – ATMs 1st got people thinking about commercial applications of cryptography – data being sent over telephone lines
1970s The public developments of the 1970s broke the near monopoly on high quality cryptography held by government organizations.
Use of checks increased in 70s – bringing about ACH
One way functions...
A few companies began selling access to private networks – but weren’t allowed to connect to the internet – business and universities using Arpanet had no commercial traffic – internet was used for research, not for commerce or advertising
1970 Railroads threatened by the growing popularity of air travel. Penn Central Railroad declares bankruptcy resulting in a $3.2 billion bailout
1970 Conjugate coding used in an attempt to design “money physically impossible to counterfeit”
1971 The US officially removes the gold standard
1971 Email invented
1971 Email
1971 First microcomputer on a chip
1971 Lockheed Bailout - $1.4 billion – Lockheed was a major government defense contractor
1972 First programmable word processor
1972 First video game console
1973 SWIFT established
1973 Ethernet invented, standardized in ‘83
1973 Mobile phone
1973 First commercial GUI – Xerox Alto
1973 First touchscreen
1973 Emails made up more than ¾ of ARPANET’s packets – people had to keep a map of the network by their desk – so DNS was created
1974 A protocol for packet network intercommunication – TCP/IP – Cerf and Kahn
1974 Franklin National Bank Bailout - $1.5 billion (valued at that time) - At the time, it was the largest bank failure in US history
1975 New York City Bailout - $9.4 billion – NYC was overextended
1975 W DES - meant that commercial uses of high quality encryption would become common, and serious problems of export control began to arise.
1975 DES, Data Encryption Standard developed at IBM, seeking to develop secure electronic communications for banks and large financial organizations. DES was the first publicly accessible cipher to be 'blessed' by a national agency such as the NSA. Its release stimulated an explosion of public and academic interest in cryptography.
1975 Digital camera
1975 Altair 8800 sparks the microprocessor revolution
1976 Bretton Woods ratified (lasted 30 years) – by 80’s all nations were using floating currencies
1976 New Directions in Cryptography published by Diffie & Hellman – this terrified Fort Meade – previously this technique was classified, now it’s public
1976 Apple I Computer – Steve Wozniak
1976 Asymmetric key cryptosystem published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
1976 Hellman and Diffie publish New Directions in Cryptography, introducing a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, contributing much to solving key distribution one of the fundamental problems of cryptography. It brought about the almost immediate public development of asymmetric key algorithms. - where people can have 2 sets of keys, public and private
1977 Diffie & Hellman receive letter from NSA employee JA Meyer that they’re violating Federal Laws comparable to arms export – this raises the question, “Can the gov prevent academics from publishing on crypto?
1977 DES considered insecure
1977 First handheld electronic game
1977 RSA public key encryption invented
1978 McEliece Cryptosystem invented, first asymmetric encryption algorithm to use randomization in the encryption process
1980s Large data centers began being built to store files and give users a better faster experience – companies rented space from them - Data centers would not only store data but scour it to show people what they might want to see and in some cases, sell data
1980s Reaganomics and Thatcherism
1980 A decade of intense bank failures begins; the FDIC reports that 1,600 were either closed or received financial assistance from 1980 to 1994
1980 Chrysler Bailout – lost over $1 billion due to major hubris on the part of its executives - $1.5 billion one of the largest payouts ever made to a single corporation.
1980 Protocols for public key cryptosystems – Ralph Merkle
1980 Flash memory invented – public in ‘84
1981 “Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonumns” – Chaum
1981 EFTPOS, Electronic funds transfer at point of sale is created
1981 IBM Personal Computer
1982 “The Ethics of Liberty” Murray Rothbard
1982 Commodore 64
1982 CD
1983 Satellite TV
1983 First built in hard drive
1983 C++
1983 Stereolithography
1983 Blind signatures for untraceable payments
Mid 1980s Use of ATMs becomes more widespread
1984 Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust bailed out due to overly aggressive lending styles and - the bank’s downfall could be directly traced to risk taking and a lack of due diligence on the part of bank officers - $9.5 billion in 2008 money
1984 Macintosh Computer - the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse
1984 CD Rom
1985 Zero-Knowledge Proofs first proposed
1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber
1985 Elliptic Curve Cryptography
1987 ARPANET had connected over 20k guarded computers by this time
1988 First private networks email servers connected to NSFNET
1988 The Crypto Anarchists Manifesto – Timothy C May
1988 ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network
1989 Savings & Loan Bailout - After the widespread failure of savings and loan institutions, President George H. W. Bush signed and Congress enacted the Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act - This was a taxpayer bailout of about $200 billion
1989 First commercial emails sent
1989 Digicash - Chaum
1989 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the prototype system which became the World Wide Web, WWW
1989 First ISPs – companies with no network of their own which connected people to a local network and to the internet - To connect to a network your computer placed a phone call through a modem which translated analog signals to digital signals – dial-up was used to connect computers as phone lines already had an extensive network across the U.S. – but phone lines weren’t designed for high pitched sounds that could change fast to transmit large amounts of data
1990s Cryptowars really heat up...
1990s Some countries started to change their laws to allow "truncation"
1990s Encryption export controls became a matter of public concern with the introduction of the personal computer. Phil Zimmermann's PGP cryptosystem and its distribution on the Internet in 1991 was the first major 'individual level' challenge to controls on export of cryptography. The growth of electronic commerce in the 1990s created additional pressure for reduced restrictions.[3] Shortly afterward, Netscape's SSL technology was widely adopted as a method for protecting credit card transactions using public key cryptography.
1990 NSFNET replaced Arpanet as backbone of the internet with more than 500k users
Early 90s Dial up provided through AOL and Compuserve
People were leery to use credit cards on the internet
1991 How to time-stamp a digital doc - Stornetta
1991 Phil Zimmermann releases the public key encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) along with its source code, which quickly appears on the Internet. He distributed a freeware version of PGP when he felt threatened by legislation then under consideration by the US Government that would require backdoors to be included in all cryptographic products developed within the US. Expanded the market to include anyone wanting to use cryptography on a personal computer (before only military, governments, large corporations)
1991 WWW (Tim Berners Lee) – made public in ‘93 – flatten the “tree” structure of the internet using hypertext – reason for HTTP//:WWW – LATER HTTPS for more security
1992 Erwise – first Internet Browser w a graphical Interface
1992 Congress passed a law allowing for commercial traffic on NSFNET
1992 Cpherpunks, Eric Hughes, Tim C May and John Gilmore – online privacy and safety from gov – cypherpunks write code so it can be spread and not shut down (in my earlier chapter)
1993 Mosaic – popularized surfing the web ‘til Netscape Navigator in ’94 – whose code was later used in Firefox
1993 A Cypherpunks Manifesto – Eric Hughes
1994 World’s first online cyberbank, First Virtual, opened for business
1994 Bluetooth
1994 First DVD player
1994 Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994
1994 Internet only used by a few
1994 Cybercash
1994 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption protocol released by Netscape. Making financial transactions possible.
1994 One of the first online purchases was made, a Pizza Hut pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and extra cheese
1994 Cyphernomicon published – social implication where gov can’t do anything about it
1994-1999 Social Networking – GeoCities (combining creators and users) – had 19M users by ’99 – 3rd most popular after AOL and Yahoo – GeoCities purchased by Yahoo for $3.6B but took a hit after dotcom bubble popped and never recovered – GC shut down in ‘99
1995-2000 Dotcom bubble – Google, Amazon, Facebook: get over 600M visitors/year
1995 DVD
1995 MP3 term coined for MP3 files, the earlier development of which stretches back into the ‘70s, where MP files themselves where developed throughout the ‘90s
1995 NSFNET shut down and handed everything over to the ISPs
1995 NSA publishes the SHA1 hash algorithm as part of its Digital Signature Standard.
1996, 2000 President Bill Clinton signing the Executive order 13026 transferring the commercial encryption from the Munition List to the Commerce Control List. This order permitted the United States Department of Commerce to implement rules that greatly simplified the export of proprietary and open source software containing cryptography, which they did in 2000 - The successful cracking of DES likely helped gather both political and technical support for more advanced encryption in the hands of ordinary citizens - NSA considers AES strong enough to protect information classified at the Top Secret level
1996 e-gold
1997 WAP, Wireless Access Point
1997 NSA researchers published how to mint e cash
1997 Adam Back – HashCash – used PoW – coins could only be used once
1997 Nick Szabo – smart contracts “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks”
1998 OSS, Open-source software Initiative Founded
1998 Wei Dai – B-money – decentralized database to record txs
1998 Bitgold
1998 First backdoor created by hackers from Cult of the Dead Cow
1998 Musk and Thiel founded PayPal
1998 Nick Szabo says crypto can protect land titles even if thugs take it by force – said it could be done with a timestamped database
1999 Much of the Glass-Steagal Act repealed - this saw US retail banks embark on big rounds of mergers and acquisitions and also engage in investment banking activities.
1999 Milton Friedman says, “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government. The one thing that's missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash - a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B without A knowing B or B knowing A.”
1999 European banks began offering mobile banking with the first smartphones
1999 The Financial Services Modernization Act Allows Banks to Grow Even Larger
Many economists and politicians have recognized that this legislation played a key part in the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007.
1999-2001 Napster, P2P file sharing – was one of the fastest growing businesses in history – bankrupt for paying musicians for copyright infringement

submitted by crypto_jedi_ninja to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Community-led Discord AMA Transcript - October 12th, 2018

On October 12, our CEO - Marshall, Director of Product - Patrick, Director of Business Operations - Kristal, and Senior iOS Engineer - Ephraim stopped by the community-led Discord channel to answer your questions. Here’s a transcript of the questions and answers.

On Crumbs...

meakkineni: Can you give us some Crumbs stats? Like the number of downloads, total amount managed by Crumbs etc
Patrick: Unfortunately cannot go into detail but we are into the thousands of users.
meakkineni: From the jobs postings looks like you are recruiting more people for Crumbs. Can you tell us about some of the exciting new features that are going to be implemented?
Patrick: Expect to see on-demand purchase of crypto bundles, mainnet deposits and withdraws, integration with Metal Pay, and more coins! Over the coming months, we plan to offer lower fees for MTL holders, unlock features, and more!
Abu: Is Crumbs going to include any gamification aspects in the future? How is the marketing strategy for Crumbs differ from pay?
Patrick: Yes, we will add an element of gamification in the future, the current focus is user acquisition
Marshall: Yes big surprise coming here, but I'll save that one for later. the marketing strategy will be closely tied together for both apps as they are tied together, and you will see this from a technical and feature perspective as time progresses

On Metal Pay…

red: How come we don't have referrals yet? Are we holding the feature back for some reason?
Ephraim: Referrals is one of the most exciting features we have in the works, because not only is it a technical challenge on both front-end and back-end, but it also introduces a new way to earn Pop. In fact, we’re just about wrapping up and finalizing the details for this feature, while making plans to translate the tech to support even more ways to earn rewards in the app. Something to look out for in version 1.1.0 😏
flumpson: My biggest hurdle in getting people to sign up is that their bank doesn’t work. In my case it was Citi. When will there be router and account number signup for people who aren’t served by plaid?
Ephraim: Currently the app integrates Plaid, a bank-linking SDK that supports over 90% of U.S. banking customers and is used by some of the biggest names in FinTech. We are aware however that online banking is required with your financial institution, and one way around that is routing/account number input. This feature is on our roadmap as a new service that will verify your account via micro-deposit. TLDR; it’s definitely coming!
Mondo: How do you see Metal Pay taking market share from the more popular apps like Venmo and CashApp? What will convince new users to switch over?
Marshall: I really believe through innovation, amazing user experience and specifically the value proposition to users on new behaviors and new technology. Specifically, I believe PoPP and the interactions with crypto to be completely new behaviors that the mass market is yet to be introduced to. Being paid (currency not points) for making a payment? I think this is a new concept and one that Metal owns. What will convince them? This is the hard question. A viral campaign that gets our apps out there, with proper messaging and the right endorsements I believe is key. Finding the viral loop, increasing our K factor (number of invites that every new user brings). When I started this company I recognized that design, user interface, user experience, incentives, and proper information were the biggest holes in cryptocurrency. We are hitting on all of these pieces.
Mondo: “A viral campaign that gets our apps out there, with proper messaging and the right endorsements I believe is key. Finding the viral loop, increasing our K factor (number of invites that every new user brings)" - is there an estimated date for this campaign? I'm sure your community would love to help where possible as well.
Marshall: We are in the process now of smoke testing our campaign strategies, and we will certainly be involving the community as we begin.
biyamin: "I am not okay putting my social security number in [Metal Pay]. Is there another way?"
Ephraim: This is one of mostly heard feedback, and we’re aware of the friction it can cause among new users. However, it is due to our financial partners' requirements, U.S. law, and FDIC insured Cash balance (we create a bank account on behalf of users) that prompt us to ask for SSN during on-boarding. Rest assured, we have a plan in placed to make onboarding as streamlined as possible, especially when SSN no longer serves as a fool-proof means of identity verification, due to recent security breaches by large firms. Finally, we have in our roadmap to allow users onto the Metal platform with limited KYC.
Marshall: Yes in the future you will be able to skip over this requirement, however linking in personal information will make you eligible for PoPP (this serves as the anchor), without it you won't be able to access those rewards and some special features like having a bank account with us.
jake_eisenberg11: When will Metal Pay release in New York happen?
Marshall: This is a tough one, it will happen upon one of two things coming to fruition. An exchange partner joins us who has a Bitlicense and will deeply integrate their back-end with us or us acquiring our Money Transmission License for NY and the accompanying Bitlicense (which if this is the case will take at least 1 year). That being said we're shooting for the former obviously, a partner to help us fast track and we've got a few in the pipeline
[A bunch of different people]: When will Metal Pay release in [insert location here]?
Kristal: I can assist with all the WHEN will Metal Pay release in MY STATE or COUNTRY. We have no firm timelines on either, but we are pursuing all states and expanding to Europe/Asia simultaneously… Ditto for Crumbs.
Jan: Quick one - Metal Pay debit cards?
Marshall: VERY SOON, it's next up on our feature roadmap
redruggles5: Really excited about Metal Pay for merchants, particularly micro-business. Are you able to tell us how that will look and where in the timeline that is? Do you have plans to integrate with current bookkeeping software like QuickBooks, plans for accepting credit cards/integration with Pay, etc? The biggest objection I get is in regards to integration with their current system, the ability to accept cards, addition of QR codes or another private way for customers to pay besides their phone number. Lastly, will there be a separate referral system for merchants?
Marshall: We are very excited as well, in terms of merchants we are going to start with the integrations into existing POS. Integrating with QuickBooks and Intuit are a must for crypto record keeping for S/M/L business, we have ambitious plans for this. Referral system for merchants via consumer - YES.
ekasu: Is there a possibility to increase the Metal Pay bank transfer speed (from 1 day or so currently to within the same day like Venmo) to increase competitiveness/attraction?
Marshall: Yes with Instant ACH for US customers, a feature we will be adding and is in the PF board on Jira
Bitcoinbella: Are there any plans for retail stores to use Metal yet?
Marshall: Yes, a big part of our plan of attack here is to launch first with the debit card so we can go anywhere Visa/MC is accepted. The next step is to go after small business with technical integrations through payment partners as well as simple QR codes at the register similar to Wechat/Alipay (China really inspires me). Technical integrations - this means WooCommerce, WordPress, Shopify, Authorize.net, etc, and for physical brick and mortar stores working directly with processors (lots of them see Square as a threat and are much larger, eventually Square will go to cut out interchange and stick it to the credit card companies, many partnership opportunities abound)
jake_eisenberg11: When cannabis merchant service?!?!?!
Marshall: We have pivoted away from high-risk merchants, that being said crypto is like cash and is permission-less. The bank poses no restrictions on what you do with cash withdrawn from the ATM unless you are doing something that could be considered illegal or pose harm to the bank. Very similar to us, replace paper cash with crypto.
ekasu: What is the deadline looking for these features: (a) transfer Metal to erc20 wallet/Metal vault; (b) use Metal Pay with merchants
Marshall: Mainnet deposit/withdrawal early end of this year or January. Metal merchants will kick off with our card integration for consumers, integrations for Merchant will start next year (upon hiring more developers) Glenn very early on built a very cool WordPress plugin for WooCommerce. These integrations for WP, Shopify, etc will come first and most likely early in 2019.
meakkineni: Looking at things so far, I have a feeling that PoPP score implementation has barely started. What is the time frame we are looking for it to go live?
Marshall: PoPP score is implemented just not integrated into the UI, this is a high priority one for us.

On MTL...

Decoder1: There's been talk about making the MTL token more prominent in both Crumbs and MetalPay. Some things which have been mentioned are discounted fee's, moving it to the top of the buy list, unlocking special features and obviously the increased POPP score which has already been confirmed. Are these still in the works or have they been shelved? If so are there any other bonus features Metal are considering?
Marshall: I'm really looking forward to adding these additional features to highlight the special function of MTL inside the Metal ecosystem of apps. Some things that have not been talked about yet are early access on special features for users with a MTL balance, gamified features to unlock surge PoPP, partner integrations and more.
NilesCrane: What will be the utility of the MTL token when other tokens are available to be popped? What will being the 'native currency' for the Metallicus apps involve and why would you expect this to drive the token price higher when other tokens are available in the same network?
kt: When will we start to see some other utilities for the MTL token through pay and Crumbs etc, other than the existing PoPP mechanism, and what are they likely to be?
Ephraim: We have a grand vision of how Metal and Pop will play a role in your daily experience on the Metal platform. Although we can’t go into too much detail into the features we have in our roadmap, we can say that MTL token will be an essential part of the Metal platform and overall ecosystem. Earning Pop when making payments is the stepping stone to realizing this vision, as we become the best, most rewarding, and user-friendly payments/crypto platform on the market.
Deaethtofiat: Will Metal's [ticker] still be changing?
Marshall: That [$XMT] is something we want to do upon announcing our mainnet chain.
Tblgu: Did Metal pay a fee for Bittrex relisting?
Kristal: Simple answer is no. We haven't seen any American-based exchanges charging for listings, and we believe the Bittrex re-listing was based entirely on the merits of our company.
marc0o: I know it might take a while until Metal reaches Europe. My favorite and IMO very promising exchange (Lykke) often gets the question whether PayPal can be used to deposit EUR or FIAT in general. Do you think it would be possible and useful to partner up with exchanges to provide FIAT deposits/withdraws?
Marshall: Yes we absolutely do and are talking to top exchanges right now, there are so many exchanges that are crypto/crypto only and we think we make a very nice fit for an integration to be the onramp/offramp, p2p payments, spending and link to the merchant world. This is a critical part of our business model and so far we are seeing HEAVY interest.
lemme: Why is Metal selling so much $MTL from the operational pool for such a low price?
Marshall: Selling and spending are two different things, so I think one of the assumptions is that selling = spending which is not the case. Yes, we are selling MTL to fund our operating bank, but not spending it at the rate that we are selling it. We are doing this because of three reasons: (1) We raised a very small amount last year to build out our apps (which arguably we have delivered) $3m vs most crypto startups raising $20m+ and we have delivered much, much more. (2) We need to demonstrate a full year of burn in the bank account to close the audit. (3) We need to close the audit to retain our money transmission licenses to get all fifty states, Europe as well, in addition to certain features like in app-exchange that we do directly. We're actively growing the company and as soon as we close Series A we will stop selling and focus on accumulating (not only MTL, but certainly as much MTL as we can get our hands on while diversifying).
ekasu: How likely is that more MTL is taken out of the operational pool in the short term, which can decrease the price much more?
Marshall: MTL will be taken out of the operational pool until the successful closing of our financing round which we are in the process of right now
meakkineni: Have you come up with any other significant use cases for MTL apart from BNB style use case in Crumbs and building a better PoPP score?
Marshall: Yes, and you will be hearing more about that as we plan to release an updated paper showcasing the fully decentralized aspects of the chain we are building.

On Metal…

marc0o: I hope I remember it right. A while ago Marshall talked about Metal being a service targeting people that do not have a bank account. Is this still on the roadmap?
Marshall: Yes it is. I know it may not appear that way right now but I firmly believe a good product keeps a narrow execution and a large vision. So the first part of the network and what will eventually become decentralized is starting on the equivalent of testnet or centralized (this is not too different than Bitcoin or Ethereum in the early days). We’re starting with linked bank accounts and moving to keep that as an option that people can skip over and opt to choose a stable coin, all while creating a Metal profile and [obtaining a] PoPP score.
Parker: Would Metal consider doing token buybacks (a la BNB)? Are they even legal in the U.S.? Could doing so make Metal a security?
Marshall: As a company, we will buy different cryptocurrencies at different times depending upon the market situation, buying MTL is something that we will do, as far as any guarantee to x amount being bought back per quarter or percentage of profit, that is most likely indefinitely off the table for a US company.
CryptoSheffield: Do you “own” the PoPP concept?
Marshall: We own trademarks yes, the first mention of media and are working on a provisional patent. This type of thing is very hard to get a patent for even harder to defend right now.
Future: Some people noticed Sid no longer on the website. Has he moved on? If so what's the story there?
Kristal: Sid put together some beautiful designs and helped shape and create the early stages of Metal until it's launch. As we move into the next stage of post-launch, we amicably parted ways with Sid and wish him continued success wherever he goes. As a company, we're on the hunt for a Principal Designer to continue our progress on great design and user interface, to push us into the next phase of our product.
Marshall: I'd also like to add design is incredibly important to me and the reason I hired Sid. If you follow my work from my first crypto/fintech startup I've always been a stickler for amazing user experience and design, specifically with Metal I'm going above and beyond and creating what I believe to be a work of art, something that will be on showcase in the Moma in 20 years from now on a design exhibit.
SciGuy: You guys still thinking of launching in Korea? Of all the places, this is where I'm actually going to be paying very close attention. Korea loves crypto.
Marshall: BIG TIME. We want to enter the Korean market ASAP as we know we have quite a few fans there. The goal is to quickly enter the international market by the end of this year. Now that Nebula is working the next hurdles are bank/FI partners, licensing, localization and marketing (its more complicated than that but those are the critical pieces to expansion). Keep in mind we will be allowing anyone in the world to sign up in the future and skip bank while choosing a stablecoin as their "bank" fiat choice. This goes back to the unbanked question. If we just release a crypto wallet and say tada we've banked the unbanked... have we really? I'm serious when I say it. And you can see it in the progression with our products and the vision. Gotta link existing banked citizens along with merchants and unbanked, they all must be in the same ecosystem. Otherwise, the dream can't become a reality.
andrea: I would like to ask about timing. I remember there was a talk about things that could be done before EOY such as new crypto implementing PoPP; debit card, series A round.
Marshall: Yes, I'm happy to say this is all on track. In terms of fundraising round, I believe the missing link for us is demonstrating user growth and b2b client acquisition, something we are working on fiercely right now. One of the things I saw in Dogecoin community that was really awesome was the involvement of the community in viral campaigns (especially for good) such as NascaJosh Wise, Doge for water, Sending the Jamaican bobsled team to the Winter Olympics.
nofomo: Anything you can share about things to look forward to before EOY? Any big partnerships, etc.? From a marketing perspective, are there ways that MTL can showcase or communicate SEC compliance more? Not to flaunt it, but as people scramble out of bad projects/Tether, etc., it might help to get more info out there. When Desk, and can we expect to see USD/MTL pairs?
Marshall: We have quite a few new features coming: PoPP in under ten minutes always, PoPP notifier so you can know if a payment is PoPP eligible, API for other companies (exchanges, cryptos, FIs), adding more cryptos for PoPP funnel, buy functionality, mainnet deposit/withdrawal. Partnerships we have a few big ones in the pipeline 😉 In terms of compliance I think our actions speak louder than words, we operated very differently than 99% of the other companies in the space and focused heavily on compliance in a rapidly evolving landscape. We were chastised initially for keeping the token offering private and to accredited but in the long run this was the correct way to operate and we're seeing that now. Desk/Vault is postponed until next year as we have more than enough to conquer right now on Pay/Crumbs... USD/MTL pairs, soon!!! Not just with us, but on other exchanges we anticipate.
meakkineni: Has any other banks shown interest in Metal lately?
Marshall: Yes, a few big ones, as well as smaller tier 2 banks
meakkineni: Is there any tangible benefit Metal has gained so far by sponsoring Necker Cup?
Marshall: Yes, quite a bit with partners we are in talks with now, in addition to bringing in investors in our next financing round... Not to forget influencers!
cryptoandcannabis: Is there any institutional support for Metal being shown, even in preliminary stages? Now that traditional asset custodians such as Fidelity are in the mix maybe MTL can become a slice of people's crypto asset class
Marshall: We are starting to see interest from the big custodians in the space, very exciting times. Fidelity recently entering has really helped this, in addition, several trust companies are opening up.

On Metal Blockchain…

1Chance: Will [Metal] consider supporting any of the stablecoins?
Marshall: Yes, all of the good ones we will be supporting.
Yannik: Will be some parts of the new Metal Blockchain open source? And based on Stellar?
Marshall: Yes it most certainly will be open source and anyone can connect to our public network. Based on Stellar? Where are you getting this information? 😛
Québécoiserie: Are you working on Metal Blockchain now or has it not started yet?
Marshall: We are in the very beginning phases and testing the assumptions for PoPP on our centralized back-end. Additionally, we are in the process of raising a funding round, The Metal Foundation will be running the open source initiative when we launch it next year.
Decoder1: There is a lot of talk about a Metal blockchain - this sounds exciting but also quite ambitious because it can take years to achieve the fine tuning and security required to develop a new blockchain. Would it be PoW? PoS? Wouldn't it be easier to build a side chain on Ethereum like Loom, or build something on Cosmos SDK to take advantage of existing layer 1 security solutions? If you plan to one day PoPP with other tokens Cosmos might be a good idea. My concern is that with a small team and many things like Desk, Merchant, revamped Vault, new features on the App, Android, new regions, that Metal might be biting off more than it can chew. So if you could elaborate more on these plans that would be great!
Marshall: This is a correct assumption and we are already doing a lot, there is a reason we have put Vault/Desk on hold while we focus on Crumbs and Pay. In terms of the blockchain side, we are staying agnostic and specifically with the consensus mechanism we are looking at lots of options. We will, without a doubt, be leveraging other chains for interoperability. Jae Kwon is a good friend of mine and I think Cosmos has a lot of potential (I'm an investor full disclosure), I also look at the work that has been done with Komodo leveraging the bitcoin blockchain, I find this very interesting as well. The idea here is that this will be a non-profit initiative under The Metal Foundation and not directly intertwined with Metallicus Inc. the private company.
meakkineni: Lately we have been talking more about Metal Blockchain than Metal Merchant. Has the focus shifted?
Marshall: The focus has not shifted, one of the things that did change from the inception of the project until now is that we've decided to stay away from re-inventing POS and merchant software, we feel that it is better to partner with processors than try to replace them ala Square

On ???...

Sporklin: I did warn I came with a vital question. @Marshall Shoes, you are known in the crypto space for having good taste in clothes. What is on your feet at the moment?
Marshall: Hey @Sporklin!!!! Long time no see and thank you. Ok check it out, these ones are steezy and I just picked them up.
Yannik: Is Kangen Water still available in the office?
Marshall: Yes, still on tap, always. Kangen 9.5.
Parker: how many fingers am I holding up?
Marshall: Two? 🤘
submitted by imjoshs to MetalPay [link] [comments]

Weekly Roundup | Random Chat | Notifications

News roundup for the previous week.
In International news
  1. Singapore and China work to boost Chongqing's connectivity
  2. Chinese private security goes global
  3. Could China's Trump tactics actually be working?
  4. Russia and China’s Enduring Alliance: shared political vision for world order provides the foundation for Chinese-Russian cooperation. It is defined primarily by the desire to see an end to U.S. primacy, to be replaced by multipolarity
  5. US Border (Black Shirt) Agents Out of Control, Randomly Harass visitors (Iranians, Taiwanese, Scandinavians, Australian Children book author). (ICE Agents Can Legally Lie to Trick and Interrogate People, and Detain People Under False Pretenses)
  6. Current Americans' view of China most positive in three decades: poll
  7. China's top diplomat to visit U.S. on Monday and Tuesday: Xinhua
  8. China and Italy will strengthen their cooperation in multilateral bodies, their leaders agreed during a meeting between Chinese President Xi Jinping and his Italian counterpart Sergio Matterella
  9. Australian swim coach who trained Sun Yang accuses drug cheat's critics of throwing stones from glasshouses. I was there when Sam got busted. Did we call her a cheat for the rest of her life? By that same rationale, Sam Riley is a cheat too. But we didn't say that did we?
  10. Wang Shiyue and Liu Xinyu held onto their lead from the short dance to win the gold medal in ice dancing at the Asian Winter Games
  11. Russia, China block U.N. sanctions on Syria over gas attacks: China backed Russia and cast its sixth veto on Syria. China's U.N. Ambassador Liu Jieyi said it was too early to act because the international investigation was still ongoing
  12. PH, China coast guards line up joint drills for 2017: The Philippine Coast Guard says there will also be high-level visits, port calls, and cooperation against transnational crimes
  13. China Wants to Attract More Foreigners (of a Certain Kind): seeking to attract more foreign investors, though most green card recipients still ethnically Chinese. China’s policies are contradictory in wanting foreign talent but has a deep-rooted instinct to keep foreigners at arm’s length
  14. ISIL video threatens China with 'rivers of bloodshed'
  15. China calls for cooperation to fight Uighur militants after video released
  16. Chinese immersion students win big in national competition
  17. Indonesian netizens cry anti-China conspiracy after seeing sign that reads “Indochina”: sinophobic Facebook post went viral in Indonesia, showing that there is clearly a link between ignorance and hatred "Indochina???? What country is that? Is this the sign of a revolution?"
  18. Which countries are on the right track, according to their citizens? - WEF Survey
  19. China, Laos agree to boost cooperation
  20. Italy Hopes to Participate in China's Silk Road Project: "We are confident in the realization of China's 'One Belt, One Road' initiative and we will work on that project together with China," Mattarella said
  21. China accuses western media of 'fake news' about human rights
  22. Protests mount in China against South Korea's missile system
  23. Murakami novel acknowledges Nanjing Massacre, sets off online frenzy
  24. Canada launches consultations on free trade with China
  25. Russia, China Agree to Expand Cooperation in Fight Against Terrorism - Ministry
  26. Chinese PM warns world entering period of political and economic upheaval
  27. Trump seeks early meeting with Xi Jinping
  28. US propaganda effort against China has moved from human rights critique to discrediting their success, such as calling Chinese "thieves" (World Congress of Sociology)
  29. European smog could be 27 times more toxic than air pollution in China
In Domestic news
  1. Tibet set to receive 25 million tourists this year: visitors are expected to generate more than 37 billion yuan ($5.38 billion) in revenue
  2. JD.com sets up world's first low altitude UAV logistics network in northwest China: drones to be used in Shaanxi are to be ten times bigger than those used in the Beijing-based company's first UAV debut last June. Up to 300 kilometres per flight, the drones can be loaded with several tonnes of goods
  3. China’s youth becoming less – not more – nationalistic, says new report
  4. China considers paying couples to have a second child | World news
  5. China holds mass police rally in Xinjiang as hundreds sent to anti-terror 'frontline'
  6. Foreigner serves as village official in Zhejiang
  7. China coal consumption declines for third straight year
  8. Yao Ming elected president of Chinese Basketball Association
  9. 'They're jealous of his hot bod': Handsome world champion swimmer Ning Zetao is kicked out of Chinese national team – but fans say they love him even more. A statement from the Chinese Swimming Federation saying that he had violated team rules by signing sponsorships without consulting them first
  10. China’s world-beating solar farm is almost as big as Macau, Nasa satellite images reveal
  11. China coal use fell again in 2016, solar capacity rose 82%
  12. China accuses rights activist of 'fake news' fabricating torture
  13. Beijing wants to replace its 70,000 taxis with electric vehicles to fight local air pollution
  14. Citizens Hope to Make a Big Difference at China's Top Political Meet-Up
  15. China will complete five nuclear reactors in 2017 and double nuclear power generation to about 420 TWh by 2021
  16. What is CCTV Chinese New Year's Gala?
  17. China to target Taiwan and Hong Kong's young to boost loyalty
  18. Which Countries Are Going In The Right Direction? What Worries the World Report (18,110 people in 25 countries) by Ipsos Public Affairs on whether things are going in the “right direction” or “wrong direction” in their particular country. In China, 90% say going in right direction
  19. China's National People's Congress kicks off this weekend: Here's what to watch
  20. David Beckham has been snapped up by China to help them win the World Cup
  21. Why China staged a fresh display of military might in Xinjiang
  22. China's anti-corruption overhaul paves way for Xi to retain key ally
  23. China to build first underwater platform in South China Sea: the observation platform will probe the undersea physical, chemical, and geological dynamics, and will also be used for other purposes
  24. China's domestic railway system is expected to grow by 30,000 kilometres before 2020 and one-third will consist of high-speed rail, according to the country's Ministry of Transport
  25. Premier Li says China will resolutely oppose Taiwan independence
In SciTech news
  1. Inside the Chinese lab poised to study world's most dangerous pathogens: The move is part of a plan to build between five and seven biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) labs across the Chinese mainland by 2025
  2. China's Sina Weibo (WB) will soon have more users than Twitter (TWTR)
  3. Fermi Finds Dark Matter Clues in Andromeda Galaxy: Messier 31 may help astronomers understand the life cycle of cosmic rays and star formation. “We don’t fully understand the roles cosmic rays play in galaxies, or how they travel through them,” said lead co-author Dr. Xian Hou, Yunnan Observatories
  4. China’s solar megastructure captured on camera from space (PHOTOS)
  5. Huawei Honor V9 launched in China; Dual cameras, Android Nougat and more
  6. China and Italy to cooperate on long-term human spaceflight: Other activities include joint work relating to scientific payloads, data sharing, mutual use of technical facilities and the exchange of personnel
  7. China welcomes more foreign scientists: Nobel Prize winner Yang Zhenning and Turning Award winner Yao Qizhi, gave up their foreign nationalities to become Chinese citizens
  8. Speaking Mandarin may offer kids a musical edge: perceiving musical pitch. Creel's team published its findings Developmental Science. Scientists had previously linked speaking Mandarin and musical ability in adults. The new study is the first to do that in children
  9. Atom-scale oxidation mechanism of nanoparticles helps develop anti-corrosion materials: research group led by Prof. BAO Xinhe from Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
  10. Pimax 4K Review - Budget VR
  11. Israel's Top VCs Can't Help But Be In Awe Of China's Tech Progress
  12. Neutrons, simulation analysis of tRNA-nanodiamond combo could transform drug delivery design principles: team including Liang Hong of Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China to observe the motions of hydrogen atoms from the model system
  13. Huawei is considering cell towers that wirelessly charge drones: Cell towers could power the drones that fly above them
In Economic news
  1. Chinese wages exceed Brazil, Argentina and Mexico
  2. China's thriving SUV-only automaker looks to global growth: Great Wall Motors Ltd. sells Havals in Australia, Italy and Russia. Its CEO, Wang Fengying, is the first woman to lead an automaker a decade before GM Chairman and CEO Mary Barra. Wei has a reputation for military-style discipline
  3. Earliest China Data Indicate Economy Remaining Stable This Month - Bloomberg
  4. 'Made in China' isn't so cheap anymore, and that could spell headache for Beijing
  5. Huawei, China's biggest smartphone maker, isn't planning to schmooze with Trump
  6. Chinese 'Taobao villages' are turning poor communities into huge online retail hubs
  7. Lotte's land offer for THAAD may become nightmare for business
  8. The U.S. International Trade Commission said that subsidized bus and truck tires imported from China had not damaged the U.S. industry, and as a result it would not issue anti-dumping and countervailing duty orders on the products
  9. China sees sharp decline in ivory smuggling in 2016
  10. China Manufacturing Activity Has Strong Start to 2017 - WSJ
  11. China economic strength allows shift from stimulus
  12. China is buying less of Hollywood, but more of everything else in the USA
  13. A delivery man just became one of the richest people in China
  14. China is now calling the shots in metals pricing
  15. Private schools go to China to lure $40,000 fee-paying students
  16. PBoC is going digital as mobile payments boom: After assembling a research team in 2014, the People’s Bank of China has done trial runs of its prototype cryptocurrency. Chinese people have embraced online payments for just about everything
  17. China Hard Landing Story Dies Another Day
  18. China Is Preparing Its Own Bitcoin Alternative
  19. Global art sales plummet, China biggest market: Artprice annual report. China chalked up the highest total sales and "established itself clearly as the superpower" of the art world, the report said
  20. China sets 2017 GDP growth target at around 6.5%
In Military news
  1. China's Strategic Support Force to Wage Cyber and Space War vs the US: Xi has ordered the SSF to pursue "leapfrog development" and advance military innovation. SSF is optimized for future warfare in new strategic frontiers such as space, cyberspace and the electromagnetic domain
  2. Mystery deepens over Chinese forces in Afghanistan
  3. Meet China's triple-hulled warship of the future: A trimaran vessel with all-electric propulsion, multiple helicopters, and anti-ship missiles. If compared to the vessel USS Independence subclass of the Littorial Combat Ship, the Chinese frigate is far more heavily armed for conventional warfare
  4. Military analysts suggest ways to disable THAAD
  5. China’s FC-31 Fighter May Be Slated for Carrier Ops: FC-31 has a twin nose gear, and it was recently reported that the third Chinese aircraft carrier would be fitted with three steam catapults
  6. Fake News about Chinese Nuclear Weapons: sole basis of the claim that China announced the existence and deployment of the DF-41 is a commentary. The fabrication and distribution of misinformation about the size, capability and intent of China’s nuclear arsenal is nothing new
  7. Nepal-China military drill to be held in March
  8. Made in China Laser Cannon Built to Destroy UAV Swarms a Big Hit at IDEX 2017: by Poly Technologies, "Silent Hunter" is a fiber-optic laser air defense system. It can track and shoot down aerial targets with the diameter of less than 2 meters that fly at a speed of less than 60 meters per second
  9. China's 2017 military budget rise slows again
  10. There's a new player at Australia's biggest airshow: China
  11. Drones, lasers, and tanks: China shows off its latest weapons. S-20 attack submarines, FC-31 stealth fighter jets, and updates to laser and drone weaponry. CH-5 drone is China's largest UCAV offered for export, 4,400-mile range and 60hr flight time (soon to become 12,000 miles and 120hr of flight)
Other Notables
  1. A Million People Live in These Underground Nuclear Bunkers
  2. China, Taiwan and 228 Massacre anniversary
  3. In China, this is science fiction's golden age
  4. What will it take for China to rein in North Korea?
  5. Chinese national Sanda team training
  6. Trump and the media: How does “fake news” affect politics in a “post-truth” era?
  7. The wedding portraits of two sanitation worker couples from the city of Hangzhou attracted much attention recently on the country's social media
  8. The Martial Arts Show That Is Destroying Asian Stereotypes on Screen
  9. 500 years ago, China destroyed its world-class merchant navy because its political elite was afraid of free trade - A lesson in protectionism
  10. Tobacco lobby holding back smoking ban
  11. Pentagon report on China racism and containment strategies [proves US media is nothing but propaganda]
  12. An Uneasy Codependence
  13. Chinese and American Consumers Have Different Ideas About What Makes a Product Creative
  14. China shift to renewables transforms world's biggest polluter from 'climate bad boy' into 'true leader'
  15. Chinese excavation technology at forefront of Tel Aviv's railway tunnels
  16. Mirror of Time: Chinese Weddings Through the Decades
  17. Meet the Chinese farmer who taught himself law in order to sue a corporation
  18. North and South Korea Give China a Double Headache
  19. China's play for supremacy in Eurasia revives an old geopolitical vision
  20. Matt Damon's 'The Great Wall' to Lose $75 Million; Future U.S.-China Productions in Doubt
  21. India goes nuts ‘competing’ with China
  22. China and Saudi Arabia Solidify Strategic Partnership Amid Looming Risks - Jamestown
  23. Ancient skulls give clues to China human history
  24. Hollywood Has Appetite For China’s Big Bucks, But At What Cost?
  25. Chinese-American Museum Of Chicago Debuts Fashion Exhibit: "The Way We Wore: Celebrating Chinese Fashion Heritage" exhibit features Chinese clothing, jewelry and accessories from the late Qing Dynasty to the late 20th century
  26. Most Chinese Parents Have Misunderstandings over Raising Boys and Girls in Different Ways: following the old Chinese saying 'to raise sons in poor while give daughters a wealthy life'
  27. After ISIS Threat, China May Have to Get off Sidelines in Middle East
  28. China's Love Affair With Basketball
  29. How China Has Taken Over The Worldwide Box Office In 2017
  30. Pictures: Snow scenery of Jinshanling Great Wall
  31. [Discussion] Yeah... I have no doubt now U.S is totally going down we are watching the decline of a nation live.You may think it is a rant but seems pretty clear for me , any opinions?
  32. Universal Wins Bidding War for Michael Bay-Produced Script About Trump-Like Dystopia
  33. chinese football - Here comes a new challenger! (Chinese indie rock)
  34. Chinese actors getting cast in bigger roles in US films: When Matt Damon got stranded on Mars in 'The Martian', NASA called on China for help. And Star Wars' Rogue One - a huge hit - with TWO Chinese stars in major roles
  35. Russia and China are not competing for influence in Central Asia since their priorities in the region coincide, including maintaining political stability, promoting economic development and upholding secular statehood
  36. China's Tortured Beauties: Make Me Look Western
  37. Dr. Nancy Wang Yuen on racism in Hollywood
submitted by AutoModerator to Sino [link] [comments]

[Table] IAmA: I'm Rick Falkvinge, founder of the first Pirate Party and subsequent author of "Swarmwise: the tactical manual to changing the world". AMA.

Verified? (This bot cannot verify AMAs just yet)
Date: 2013-10-21
Link to submission (Has self-text)
Questions Answers
American here. A sizable group of us believe that copyright and patent law in America has grown completely out of control. However, most of us would also agree that it is still important for creators to have some window of protection over their creations. So my question is: What form of copyright and patent protection would you like to see established in the future? If you could single-handedly write the law, what would it look like? The more I look at patent monopolies and copyright monopolies and their respective effects, the more I dislike them. The effect always turns out to be the strong opposite to the one claimed (i.e., the framework does not protect the creatoinventor at all, but only the big incumbents who can afford a bigger lawsuit war chest). If I were to write the law entirely myself for a small nation, I'd scrap both of them completely and set up a research/creativity haven. In some 15-20 years, practically all patents monopolies filed in other countries would be a result of research in that country, as - this is important to get - research would not be illegal there. However, I'm not writing the law myself so it's important to be realistic. Shorter-term, I think copyright monopoly law can be scaled back to cover a commercial-only monopoly of 20 years from publication with DRM banned as fraud. When I say "commercial-only", I mean that noncommercial sharing of knowledge and culture should be not just legal, but encouraged. (Patents should still go, though, but it takes longer to explain why to the public at large: unlike with the copyright monopolies, they are not as directly affected - unless you count the millions in the third world who die due to lack of medicine, but they never counted in Western policymaking, sadly)
Could you elaborate more on the research/creativity safe haven? How would this be done? Today, patent and copyright monopolies have the effect that inventing and creating is illegal in most cases. If I could write the laws myself in a reasonably small, reasonably technically literate country, it would be great to create such a haven.
Do you have an essay or an article on this specific point? It's still a bit vague. Edit: grammar. I don't, but I'll make a note to write an article about it and ping you when I've done so.
Cheers, Rick.
Mind putting whatever you write somewhere visible? Many are interested. I'm publishing at falkvinge.net as public domain, meaning you could freely republish it anywhere you liked. Is that satisfactory?
Cheers, Rick
How have your political views changed over the last 20 years? 3 years? This year? In general, my views and values have stayed the same (defend freedoms of speech, expression, assembly, and the press; defend the right and duty to share culture and knowledge) but the urgency of defending them has increased with the backlash from the establishment against their loss of power.
I've also come to start favoring a Universal Basic Income as a replacement for all current social safety nets.
But most importantly, I've grown increasingly cynical about the way the world works, the deeper I have gone down the rabbit hole. In essence, the big incumbent economic interests are writing our laws, and I didn't think it was that bad.
We need to return power to the people. In order to be able to do that, we need to defend the freedoms of speech, opinion, and assembly provided by a free, untracked, and uncensored net.
Re: Universal Basic Income (UBI): there's an ongoing European citizens' initiative for basic income which needs a million signatures until 14.01.2013 - 28 countries, including Sweden, are collecting signatures right now and when we succeed, the European Commission has an obligation to organize a public discussion about it in the EU parliament. We have a chance to speed things up regarding the implementation of UBI in Europe. We could appreciate any help with promoting the initiative. An endorsement from a known person such as you would help us a great deal. Would you be willing to endorse us? I'll take a look at it. In the meantime, link to it in your post here?
Won't a universal basic income drive the cost of goods up over time such that the income will be too small to really be effective? Just like how printing more money lowers it's value, rather than giving you more spending power? Well, we effectively already have a minimum income with all our social safety nets (nobody needs to starve). This would be a simplification.
Link to rt.com. Thanks, I'll take a look at it (but having grown a bit cynical about how the world actually works, I doubt I'd be surprised).
If you really want to head down the rabbit hole, here's a great interview with a former World Bank lawyer, and corruption whistleblower. Cheers, Rick.
Have you read Heinlein's "For us, the living"? There's a focus on a similar economic framework if I remember correctly. I haven't. Heinlein used to be one of my favorite authors while I still allowed myself the time and enjoyment of reading fiction, so I thank you for the tip, and add it to my list of things to look at (and hopefully get around to)!
Cheers, Rick
In your opinion, what's the biggest threat to a free and open Internet (i.e. not controlled/blocked by a government), today and in the future? People and industries that, for some reason, don't like when everybody has the power to speak and express themselves freely without centralized control. (EDIT/ADD: Looking at history, this has always been the key to power - the ability to speak and reach a large audience; the ability to interpret reality. It's basically the #1 power from which all other powers stem.)
This particularly includes the copyright industry, the cable TV industry, the telco industry, and every politician that has ever wanted to control public opinion.
In general, the incumbent industries that claim to embrace the internet are not to be trusted on that matter.
Do you worry that calling your party "The Pirate Party" might be a marketing blunder? Did you use the word "Pirate" to attract a certain type of person or to project a certain image to the masses? Link to falkvinge.net (longer)
And.
Link to i.imgur.com (shorter)
Cheers, Rick
Are you still invested in bitcoin? If yes, how many % of your original "all in" at $10 do you have left? I originally went all in at $7, went out at the same price on the way down, and went back all in at about $3. I've done extensive (bad) trading, and don't have my entire initial position, and far from enough to make me financially independent, but still a substantial amount (more than a year's average net pay, to give a ballpark number).
I'm currently all in.
How secure do you feel about your investment now with all the events regarding bitcoin this past year? Most recent of these being the recent closure of silkroad and the Chinese search giant Baidu accepting bitcoin for some services. Disclosure: I own some coins. I follow developments on an hour-by-hour basis, and one of my screens is constantly showing Link to bitcoinwisdom.com.
Wait a minute. Yes, that's me. I made a couple of bad assumptions in that piece, and learned a lot from the comments.
Weren't you the one who wrote that long idiotic piece about how way overvalued BTC was only about 2 mo ago? That's one of my primary modus operandi - put a stake in the ground and go from there.
and went back all in at about $3. On the way up, or down? Doesn't really matter now, but on the way up after the bottoming-out at $2ish.
Like Piper67, it was your 2011 article that got me to move all my savings (just savings, not retirement investments) into bitcoin. Thanks for that! I'm happy you read my thoughts in that article and are now quite rich as a result!
Cheers, Rick
Nobody makes the first jump. Very true. Trading is a brutal game.
Where do you see bitcoin/cryptocurrency in general going in the next 5-10-100 years? Bitcoin is going to do to banks, what email did to the postal system. (The first time I sent the value of a cup of coffee to a friend in India on a Sunday, and they had the money instantly, with nobody but me and them seeing the transaction went to them at all, was an absolute blowaway. It was a frogleap 40 years into the future from where the banks have been holding us. They don't stand a chance.)
When did you realize you prefered polyamorous relationships? What are your biggest reasons? When did you realize you were homo-, bi- or heterosexual? It's an orientation, not something you choose.
I have never been jealous, and I have never understood the sentiment. If I would go out with my gf some night, and she'd meet a man while we were at a party together and go home with him, and come back by lunchtime the next day - she'd be shining happy as the sun itself. Assuming I care about her and love her, I absolutely enjoy when she's happy. I don't see a problem. I see reasons to celebrate that somebody I care about is happy. (Note that this is not a theoretical scenario; this has happened.)
It was much later in life that I learned that most people react with resentment that their loved one is happy in this situation, and I have never been able to relate to this, only to learn it at a purely rational level.
EDIT: Actually, let me add a bit of gleeful anecdote here.
When I was living with one of my serious exes a while back, an ex who was equally polyamorous, we'd sometimes bring home one night stands and sleep in the guest room with them. When she did so, and I fixed breakfast the next morning for the three of us, the guy she'd brought home (being introduced to me as the bf she lived with) was almost always unable to deal with the situation as I happily made breakfast for all of us. They just didn't know how to act or react, they had never been in that situation, they were utterly confused. It was hilarious. :)
You mirror my sentiments. What a relief that there are several of us out there. It took me a long time to realize I wasn't alone in this. Check out polyamorous communities.
Because that says you have no desire for power over another person. Wow, I just love you man! Edit: You don't want to rule them, you want to help them. Wow. I don't know what to say to that. Thanks, you almost make me blush! (Edit:) Thinking about it, Swarmwise is full of that very philosophy - that you hold no real power to command any other human being, and can only lead by inspiring them, now that you mention it.
Well I definitely appreciate it! I have followed your work and was really excited when I saw you were doing an AMA, but did not expect random, off-topic questions to be answered. So thanks again! Thanks for the kind words, I appreciate them!
EDIT - also, congratulations on your cake day!
Your reaction when the Icelandic Pirate Party managed to get 4 people into the Icelandic parliament? Three, but still a major achievement.
I was in Reykjavik for the election party - I always try to be present when the movement expects a major victory, just to re-live that amazing election victory night of 2009 when we were elected to the European Parliament. (Seriously, it was the memory of a lifetime. That's a cliché, but that night lives up to it.)
I had a couple of beers with the Icelandic crew, did a writeup on the victory in the night, and went back to my hotel extremely happy.
The election night was a serious cliffhanger - the party failed a technical threshold right after I had fallen asleep that night, going from three to zero seats, and came back on the right side of that technicality just before I woke back up. So I had been happily asleep while all the nail biting had taken place, and my victory article turned out to be far premature, but correct in the end anyway. :)
Iceland was a great case of getting elected on the national level. Meeting the future MPs before their election was equally great.
Cheers, Rick.
Thanks for the respond and thank you for correcting me, thought they had four. It's possible and probable that her being previously known contributed to the election success of PPIS [Pirate Party Iceland].
But on another note, how much of an impact do you think Birgitta Jónsdóttir has on the Pirate party? Shes is heavily criticized in Iceland for being a nut-job, rude and to much "everything is evil except me"-kind of attitude which I find absurd. And having that attitude - being prepared to piss off your colleagues in parliament to do the right thing with the people - can easily get the prerequisite 5% if you do it visibly enough and reasonably often. It's a stand most representatives would never take.
What are your thoughts on the war on drugs? One of the worst humanitarian disasters in policymaking of the 20th century. You'd think people learned something from the U.S. Prohibition of alcohol.
A history professor somewhere in my information flow said that it's easy to predict the future - it's only a matter of looking at what mistakes people have always made and predict they'll keep being repeated over and over.
To wit, look at when coffee was banned in Sweden and was claimed to be a gateway drug to heavier drug use [in this case alcohol].
Link to falkvinge.net
Cheers, Rick
What do you think is the biggest challenge to those in the U.S. trying to establish and brand a pirate party? Any tips/tricks for organizing? The first-past-the-post system, in my mind, is the biggest challenge. The Swedish Pirate Party was founded, as I describe in Swarmwise, with the estimate that you could get 225,000 votes, and Sweden has a proportional system. (The math would turn out to be remarkably spot on - we got 225,915 votes in the European elections of 2009.)
A proportional election system means that if you get 5% of the votes at the national level, you get 5% of the seats at the national level. In turn, this means that 19 out of 20 people can hate you, and you still win.
In other words, you can and should take big risks to gain visibility in such a system.
In a first-past-the-post system, you need the most votes in a particular geographic area to become that area's representative. Assuming you enter as a third party and the other two parties are of approximately equal strength, that means you must get 34% of the votes somewhere to get a single seat, compared to 5% nationwide for 5% of the seats.
It's a different ballgame completely.
That said, it can still be done, primarily by recruiting previous non-voters, but it needs to be done with a tenacious eye for the goal and a seriously long-term planning - having run the numbers for the US, I estimate that you'd need about 20% of the votes of the eligible electorate. Looking at the PP numbers from elsewhere, that's doable, but in a 10- or 15-year perspective.
People living inside the system may find ways that I haven't, of course.
Cheers, Rick.
The tips and tricks would be in Swarmwise.
The biggest challenge would be the first-past-the-post election system. It's easier in a proportional system.
What are the best arguments to use when people claim that copying is theft? Link to falkvinge.net
You may want to avoid the argument about what the lawbooks look like, though. It can be debated, and you don't want to go down that marsh as the point is to change the lawbooks.
In short - it's exercising control over your property when you manufacture copies that can be regarded as theft; manufacturing something using your own property (network equipment, computer, storage) was never theft.
Link to falkvinge.net
Cheers, Rick.
This example would be more like if a person made a documentary costing a million dollars and another person also made a documentary about the same subject, I don't think that is really what Tornada was suggesting. Link to falkvinge.net
I am interested in the pirate party and I think that a free internet is vital but I am still not sold on this argument. Would you help me out by explaining the party's logic again? Cheers, Rick
Imagine you spent time and energy starting the Pirate Party. And then, I come along and also also start a Pirate Party, stealing votes therefore ruining your entire investment! Well, a lot of people have done exactly this, so it doesn't really work well as an argument to demonstrate some kind of immorality...
Cheers, Rick.
American here. I contend, like Al Franken and others, that money in our politics is a basic flaw that should be fixed. You only spent $50,000 to get your people elected. I would call that proof positive that publicly funded elections can get people who deserve to be in office in to office. How do we go about getting money out of our politics? Or, in your opinion, should we get money out of politics as a first step towards balancing our government? Finally, are you concerned the tactics in Swarmwise could be used nefariously(or used to get terrible people like the Tea Party elected)? Yes, from what I've understood of the U.S. system, it's very biased toward people with money. However - and this is equally important - this is due to how campaigns have always been run, and the until-now criticalness of TV ads, which are horribly expensive. As for the €50,000 - it's important to realize that those were not public funds. They were small donations from what students had left over at the end of the month. Once you're in office or have a near-office election result, you get public funding for the next election, but for your first, you get nothing. So we had €50k against the incumbents' €6M, which were a lot from public funding (and donations). If you want money out of politics, you need to put politicians' jobs on the line over the issue. They're not going to make that happen voluntarily. However, I feel I have demonstrated that results can be achieved without having access to war chests. I speculated a bit about the possibility of using swarm tactics to spread a hate message, but I sincerely doubt it would work - the swarm organization is optimized for speed, trust, and scalability. You can't have a message of distrust and simultaneously build the org on trust; it would most likely take on its own external values and fall apart in internal turf piss fights.
Thank you for coming here and doing this. As for electing terrible people, I don't think the Tea Party see themselves as terrible. Initially, at least as I understand it, they were U.S. Constitutionalists, diehard about freedom of speech and so on, but naïve enough to let themselves be hijacked by corporate interests. This may be wrong in full or in part, but it's my understanding.
Hi the Freshmaker, thanks for the kind words!
Does it help the artists as much as it claims? Further, it doesn't help artists one bit. Remember that the record labels have never been on the artists' side.
Do you feel it legitimize piracy in Sweden? The blank media levy doesn't really legitimize piracy, though. Sharing knowledge and culture never needed legitimization or justification. Preventing somebody from accessing knowledge does.
What do you think about voluntaryism? I don't think it's feasible to argue for a dismantling of governments at this stage. It's much too far out on the Overton window, even if I did like it.
I'm more of a tactician - I choose short-term goals that cause progress toward my long-term goals. Obviously, getting elected to office assumes the existence of a parliamentary democracy.
Cheers, Rick.
What should be the first step (apart from buying your book of course :P) I should take in order to make change in my world? You don't need to buy the book, you can download Swarmwise for free at Link to falkvinge.net - go there first :)
The first thing you should decide on is exactly what you want to change or accomplish. Be laser focused. The second thing you should do is figure out how many people you'd need to be a part of your goal to make it happen.
Then, do it. :)
Cheers, Rick
Hi Rick, I see you're a redditor for a while now, whats your favorite subreddit(s)? technology, /science, /funny, and /bitcoinmarkets, I think.
EDIT: removed /gonewild from the original list as some seem to have not taken the response seriously (the comment is hidden by default) - but this is an AMA, after all; I place value in responding candidly to the questions.
What about /Sweden and /svenskpolitik? Do you spend any time there? Not really - the Swedish political scene is for my successor(s) to deal with; as a former party leader, I should not intervene in how they're doing their job.
Cheers, Rick
Are you of the opinion that global change is possible or even desired? And on what scale? Global change is absolutely both possible and desired. I describe in Swarmwise how to accomplish it. One obstacle is that a swarm of people who set out to change the world must have a razor-sharp focus in order to succeed.
Nobody can change everything, but everybody can change something.
Also, there is a saying: "Politics is the art of making people agree to change something all for their own reasons." That last part is very important to make things happen.
Cheers, Rick
If hypothetically you could only make one change to Swedish legislature what would it be? Kill the FRA law [the Swedish equivalent of the U.S. Patriot act, enabling warrantless bulk wiretapping], probably.
On a close second, insert the single line "this law only applies to commercial, for-profit activity" in the copyright monopoly legislation.
What is your opinion on why the Swedish Pirate Party succeeded, while the German Pirate Party imploded? What led to your initial success? The histories are actually very similar. The Swedish and German parties both had initial huge successes, but then failed to remain at the attained altitude, due to people assuming success would be inevitable.
Getting visibility is hard; keeping it is even harder. Once you start infighting for the inevitable resources that will follow the equally inevitable victory in the future, you've already lost and you're in for a very tough bottoming out before starting to climb back.
I describe this more in chapter 10 in Swarmwise, "Beyond Success".
The German PP is not doing bad by any means, by the way. Getting 2.2% in the federal elections, while not carrying for the Bundestag (German parliament), is still a climb from the last election and too big to ignore.
Cheers, Rick
American here, the eu is mandated to respond to petitions ? The same way the White House has their We The People. "Responding" doesn't even mean "Taking Seriously" - don't read too much into it.
A common argument for internet surveillance and control is the fight against child abuse imagery (and pedophile activity). You argue on the other hand, as seen here and here that surveillance and laws against child abuse imagery is counterproductive. My question is about the argument that surveillance only will make it easier for "internet criminals". Is that your opinion as well? And how is that? There is the saying that "when guns are outlawed, only outlaws will have guns".
I argue that any ban on possessing evidence of a crime will be of great help to the perpetrators of that crime, just as you argue.
Also, surveillance is not really a problem for geek-intelligence (meaning technically savvy) criminals; it's the average Joe that gets hit by it. But as the police say, most criminals are stupid, unbelievably stupid.
That saying from the police is not entirely true, of course. The police have a biased selection toward the stupid criminals. The smart ones are never seen, so we can't tell how many there are of them.
Cheers, Rick
Would you rather have a fully transparent society or one with perfect privacy? It's not an either-or; you need privacy for the citizen and transparency in the government.
Essentially, it's a sliding scale - as a purely individual citizen, you should have perfect privacy up until the point where you're formally and individually suspected of an already-committed and serious crime. As you take public office, your right to privacy is gradually replaced with a requirement for transparency of your work depending on the weight of the office, to hold the elected leaders accountable in the next election.
Cheers, Rick
Thank you for the excellent answer! Would not the opening up of government records reveal a lot about citizens however? For example, should you know if someone near you has killed someone (after they have been to prison)? Or is this up to the person to decide how much to reveal. If we employed a public servant, we would be their boss, and they would not be allowed to keep secrets from us, just like you're fired on your own job if you're keeping secrets from your boss that concerns your job performance. Such a transition has implications on what records the government may keep on the citizens, as you correctly point out.
What can I do to help? Help the Pirate Party? Contact your local Pirate Party. You can find it easily by searching for the word(s) "Pirate Party" in your own language and adding your country name.
Examples: Piratenpartei Deutschland, Piratpartiet Norge, Κόμμα Πειρατών Ελλάδας, מפלגת הפיראטים, Пиратская партия Росcии, حزب القراصنة المغربي, etc.
Help the world in general by making it a better place to be in? Read Swarmwise and put a stake in the ground, and form a swarm of volunteers around it to make the cause happen.
Cheers, Rick
Any indication of one in Brazil. We any not very strict in our copyright laws but i can definitely seeing it getting worse in the future. Yes, there is a PP in Brazil trying to get going! I was there at its foundation last summer.
Cheers, Rick.
Rick, do you smoke weed? Thoughts on marijuana in general? I don't, but I think those who do should be free to do so as long as they don't subject others to second-hand smoke.
Mr. Falkvinge, thanks for doing this AMA. This question has already been asked but - what are your thoughts on the NSA spying issue? Do you think the US will become more like China and Russia and begin restricting, or even censoring, opposing popular political opinions? Suppose there were a Pirate Party in the USA. What would that be like? Hi Grimspur, thanks for participating!
NSA spying: I'm happy that it came to light, but shocked at the scale of it. I mean, when us net liberty activists have been shouting, warning, and flailing our arms about the surveillance possible, we have been discarded as unrealistic tinfoil hats.
Now with the facts on the table, it turns out that we have been severely underestimating what has been going on. I'm still not sure how to relate to that.
The US has pretended to be a white knight in shining armor with regards to respect for human rights, and all of a sudden it turns out it's one of the worst crooks out there. This will legitimize a lot of [other] rogue states as they introduce similar wiretapping and mass surveillance: "even the United States and Europe are doing it".
When the Swedish equivalent of the NSA was debated daily in Sweden, we knew that they started each day by visiting the blogs of its critics by using a visitor-IP matcher to their public IP range. Feels safe, sound and cozy, doesn't it?
There are nascent Pirate Parties in some states of the US, but they have a different election system to grapple with (first-past-the-post rather than proportional representation).
Cheers, Rick
Hello Rick! Big fan, long time fan! First off I wanted to let the world know that you have personally helped me in my growth as a citizen of the internet. After reading about how encrypt my personal emails, you gave me some tips and helped me through that process. Thanks! First, thank you for the kind words!
My question is: What do you think of the modern nation-state? What do you think of national sovereignty and borders? Are you a firm proponent of the social contract theory of human relations? What I think the modern nation-state is a rather large question. We can observe that borders are becoming less important within some cultural spheres (say, the US-Canada-Europe-Australia), but increasingly guarded along others (say, US-Mexico). There are many different social contract theories AFAIK, so I can't subscribe to any one of them. But if you want a more politics-based response to the same general idea, I think it's crucial to have the consent of the governed if you are to run a nation-state.
What do you like to do in your spare time? I was about to respond "what spare time?", but I guess I'm rather privileged to have worked myself into a position where I do what I really enjoy doing.
Seeing how I'm currently employed to travel and speak about the pirate political perspectives, I guess spare time is when I do other things.
So, I write code. At the moment, I'm working on generalizing the rather advanced swarm management software the Swedish Pirate Party was using, in order to adapt it for general use. Going to take a while still, but I enjoy coding.
Also, I enjoy cooking for my friends a lot, especially steak dinners, and I love riding really fast motorcycles (I sometimes describe myself as a "low-altitude motorcycle pilot"). Sadly, I haven't had a bike now for a couple of years.
Link to www.facebook.com
Cheers, Rick.
EDIT: forgot endquote.
Absolutely gorgeous bike!!! Thanks! It's a Suzuki Hayabusa 1999. The fastest production bike ever built; the year after (or the year after that) the Jap manufacturers entered into an agreement to electronically cap the max speed at 300 km/h.
Thanks for the response. Hope you get a bike soon! This is one of the best things somebody has told me all year!
One more if you get to it: Do you have hope for a utopian post-scarcity world like /futurology tends to point to? As for whenwhere those conversions will happen, that's a different story. For example, the United States is completely bankrupt and overdue for a structural collapse - the only thing pegging it up is the reserve-currency status of the USD, which is crumbling. Collapses tend to be localized, even if they have global knock-on effects. Compare the collapse of the Soviet Union.
What, from your perpective, is the most pressing challenge for the Pirate Party at this moment in time? Learning how to get re-elected, I'd say.
Last updated: 2013-10-25 12:25 UTC
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G7 Nations Praise Advantages of Crypto, Warn Stablecoins ‘Pose Risk to Global Financial System’

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